brand name psychostimulant drug. It belongs to the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. Adderall is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Adderall is a combination of four amphetamine salts (racemic amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, racemic amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharide, and dextroamphetamine sulfate). It works as a reuptake inhibitor for dopamine and norepinephrine.It is available in two formulations: IR (Instant Release) and XR (Extended Release). The immediate release formulation is indicated for use in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, while the XR formulation is approved for use only with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Important side effects of therapeutic dextroamphetamine include stunted growth in young people and occasionally a psychosis can occur at therapeutic doses during chronic therapy as a treatment emergent side effect.When abused at high doses the risk of experiencing side effects and their severity increases. May include sweating or shaking.
Like other stimulant drugs, such as methamphetamine and cocaine, Adderall directly affects the mesolimbic reward pathway in the brain. Amphetamine salt preparations are considered to have high abuse potential, and it is classified as Schedule II by the US DEA. With the Safe Streets and Communities Act in Canada, Adderall has been reclassified from Schedule III to Schedule I.
Adderall is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It has been used to treat obesity, but The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists does not recommend this use.
Adderall has been shown to significantly reduce symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reportedly presents minimal side-effects. Depending on dosage, and ignoring potential side effects from on-going use or "addiction," the beneficial effects of stimulant medications can last several hours, allowing improved performance throughout the day. Compared to the similar medication methylphenidate (sold under the brand name Ritalin and others), studies have suggested that Adderall is slightly more potent and has a longer period of efficacy, especially at lower doses. For those who experience adverse side-effects to Ritalin or for whom Ritalin has become ineffective, Adderall is often recommended as a substitute. A typical adult dosing is between 30–40 mg for Adderall XR.
Apart from the FDA-approved indications for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy, Adderall has also been used off-label to manage cases of treatment-resistant depression, exogenous obesity, and alternate sleep cycle disorders.
Adderall is marketed as either an immediate-release tablet Adderall, or an extended-release capsule Adderall XR. Adderall XR utilizes the Microtrol extended-release delivery system, incorporating two types of beads. The first dissolves immediately, releasing half of the medication, while the second type dissolves slowly, releasing the remaining medication four hours later. Maximum plasma concentration is achieved in seven hours, compared to instant-release Adderall, which reaches maximum plasma concentration within three hours. As a result of its high bioavailability, Adderall XR's effectiveness is not altered by food absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. However, mean plasma concentration is prolonged by 2.5 hours (using a 900-calorie standard high-fat meal as the control). Medications that alter urinary pH will cause variations in the amount and method of excretion, and usage should be monitored when taken concurrently with Adderall.
Manufacturer's claims of instant release have been disputed. A US patent granted for Adderall was a pharmaceutical composition patent listing a rapid immediate-release oral dosage form. No claim of increased or smooth drug delivery was made. A recent double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study conducted among 35 children ages 5–12 indicated that patients behaved similarly to those having taken other immediate-release amphetamines. The authors found that sustained-release dexamphetamine (the main isomeric-amphetamine component of Adderall) had a longer duration of action, however D-amphetamine was less effective in the first few hours.
Some Adderall side effects include dizziness, nervousness, headache and weight loss, as well as faster heartbeat combined with lower blood pressure. In addition, note reports, taking too much Adderall medicine initially, could make attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms worse. Studies of long-term use of Adderall and methylphenidate in children have shown a temporary decrease in growth rate that does not affect final adult height. Stimulant medications also decrease appetite in some people, leading to weight loss, and this effect is more common with mixed amphetamine salts than methylphenidate or atomoxetine. Changes in vision have been reported with both Adderall and methylphenidate.Women who are pregnant should avoid taking Adderall, especially during early pregnancy. Studies on rats show long-term neurological and behavioral changes resulting from prenatal and early postnatal exposure to amphetamines. As noted above, other potential side effects in adults include insomnia, headaches, increased muscle tension, irritability, and anxiety.
The following provides only general guidelines and is not comprehensive. Please refer to a more comprehensive list for further information regarding co-administration of amphetamine with other substances.
FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether Adderall will harm a developing embryo or fetus. It could cause premature birth, low birth weight, or withdrawal symptoms in a newborn if the mother takes this medication during pregnancy.
In addition to treatment of juveniles with ADHD, Adderall is sometimes prescribed for children who are not doing well in school but who don't have ADHD. These are often children from economically-deprived backgrounds for whom alternatives such as therapy or tutoring is not available.
Adderall is widely used as a "study drug" at many universities, due to Adderall's reported ability to help focus energy and concentration to a much higher level than normal. It enables the user to focus and stay awake. Stories of students writing papers continuously for an unusually long time or "cramming" all night for an exam with no loss of energy or concentration are common. College campuses known to be highly competitive or have a high rate of binge drinking had up to 25% of students use an ADHD medication within one year, a survey of students at 119 colleges across the country concluded.
Adderall use as an academic advantage has become increasingly common amongst college students. Illegal Adderall use is highest among students from the northeastern region of the United States and students from colleges with more competitive admission standards. Students with ADHD sell Adderall on college campuses for anywhere from $5 to $25 a pill depending on the time of the academic year. The legal consequences for selling Adderall include prison time because it is classified as a controlled substance. It is often difficult to catch illegal Adderall sales because the pills are “easily concealed, odorless, and can be perceived as prescribed drugs” Of these sales, 62% of buyers report using Adderall for concentration and study help.
Many athletic organizations have restricted the usage of Adderall by athletes. The NCAA has banned the use of Adderall for its collegiate athletes without a prescription and adequate records of evaluation and diagnosis of ADHD. Nevada State Athletic Commission has also banned athletes in the state from using Adderall. Tim Credeur was removed from a UFC fight on the finale of The Ultimate Fighter 7 because of a positive drug test due to his use of it. In the National Football League, New Orleans Saints kicker Garrett Hartley served a four-game suspension when the 2009 NFL regular season began because he tested positive for the banned stimulant. The Arizona Cardinals tight end Ben Patrick received a four-game suspension as a result of using Adderall.
The New York Giants running back Andre Brown (American football) faced a four-game suspension for violating NFL's performance-enhancing substance ban. Brown said: “It was something that I've been on since I've been in the league, which was Adderall. I just forgot to fill out some paperwork and that was it.Brown eventually won an appeal, and had his suspension lifted.Another Giants player, Tyler Sash, was suspended for four games by the NFL in July 2012 after testing positive for Adderall four months earlier. The safety said in a statement that he took the drug legally and "under a doctor's care for an anxiety condition" to help him with public speaking.The New York Giants safety Will Hill (American football) was charged a four-game suspension for violating NFL's performance-enhancing substance ban. Hill said: “"I received a doctor's prescription for Adderall prior to signing with the Giant Tampa Bay Buccaneers cornerback Aqib Talib has been suspended four games by the NFL for violating the league's policy on performance enhancing substances. Talib released a statement saying his suspension was a result of testing positive for Adderall: "Around the beginning of training camp, I made a mistake by taking an Adderall pill without a prescription,
Adderall, as an amphetamine product, is used recreationally for its euphoric and stimulant properties.Prescription amphetamines are often obtained by those with a prescription and diverted and sold to those who do not have a prescription. As a Schedule II drug, Adderall is considered to have a high potential for misuse and a high liability for dependence. Amphetamine has the potential to cause withdrawal (mainly psychological) symptoms when ceasing use.
Amphetamine is frequently measured in hair, oral fluid, sweat, or urine as part of a drug abuse testing program. Techniques such as immunoassay may cross-react with a number of sympathomimetics drugs, so chromatographic methods specific for amphetamine should be employed to prevent false-positive results. Chiral techniques may be employed to help distinguish the source of the drug, whether obtained legally (by prescription) or illegally or possibly as a result of formation from a prodrug such as lisdexamfetamine or selegiline. Chiral separation can be used to differentiate Adderall use from use of another prescription form of amphetamine or from use of illicit amphetamine, since Adderall is unique in having a 3:1 mixture of the d- and l-isomers.